Researching the Origins of Art. Religion, and Mind
Four Paleolithic Eras Defined

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Overview of Four Eras of Evolution
of Art, Religion, Mind and Psyche


,,,,,Early Paleolithic

,,,,,Middle Paleolithic

.....Upper Paleolithic

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Oldowan (circa 2.6 to 1.4 million years ago)
  • Hominid species: Homo rudolfensis (2.6 MYA); Homo habilis (1.8 MYA).
  • Tool Mode: Mode I or Oldowan industrial complex, core-flake pebble tools (2.6 MYA and continuing into the present).

Early Paleolithic (EP) (circa 1.4 million to 100,000 years ago)

  • Hominid species: Homo ergaster (1.9 MYA); Homo erectus
    (1.8 MYA); Homo antecessor (1.0 MYA); Homo heidelbergensis
    (500,000 BP).
  • Tool mode: Mode II or Acheulian industrial complex, such as handaxes, cleavers (1.4 MYA).

Middle Paleolithic (MP) (circa 300,000 to 30,000 years ago)

  • Hominid species: Homo sapiens archaicus (500,000 BP);
    African Homo helmei (300,000 BP); European Homo sapiens neanderthalis (250,000 BP).
  • Tool mode: Mode III, Middle Stone Age (MSA) (300,000 BP)
    Mousterian industries, discoid or Levallois flaking, prepared
    core (250,000 BP).

Upper Paleolithic (UP) (circa 90,000 to 10,000 years ago)

  • Hominid species: early Homo sapiens sapiens (200,000 BP;
    late Homo sapiens sapiens (60,000 BP); emergence of racial groups; European whites are genetically 65% Asian, 35% African.
  • Tool mode: Mode IV, blade industries (African MSA/LSA transition 90,000 BP).

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