Arago, Bilzingsleben, Vértesszöllös, c. 400,000 BP / f)vertools5
Microlithic pebbletools from Bilzingsleben, Germany (OIS 11, c. 370,000 BP). One of the most important Later Acheulian microlithic artifact sites in Europe, over a long series of excavations tens of thousands of artifacts have been recorded. Flint artifacts are smaller than 4 cm. The encampment is very complex with three hut structures with fireplaces, workplaces with anvils and possible 'dance floor'. Some bones were intentionally engraved with markings of either decorative or symbolic function. Bilzingsleben is described in numerous publications by its excavators such as Mania, D, and Mania, U. (1999). Zur Kultur des Homo erectus von Bilzingsleben. Praehistoria Thuringica 3:27-63. [See Bilzingsleben markings at Later Acheulian Signs gallery at this website].
Svoboda states that side scrapers comprise 50% of the small tools; notches and denticulates, 40%; borers less than 10%. Svoboda characterizes 6, 7, 10, 12, 13 and 15 as side scrapers; 14 flat scraper; 18-20 end scrapers; 8, 11 scraper+point; 16, 17, 23 denticulates; 2-4 and 9 denticulate combined with Tayac points; 24 notched bec; 1, 5 borers.
Illustration © J. Svoboda. Svoboda, J. (1987). Lithic industries of the Arago, Vértesszöllös, and Bilzingsleben hominids: Comparison and evolutionary interpretation. Current Anthropology 28,2:219-227: fig. 5.